Solar panels are an essential component of harnessing solar energy. These panels comprise multiple PV (photovoltaic) cells, typically made from silicon. These cells convert sunlight into electricity through the photovoltaic effect.
The manufacturing process involves:
- Slicing silicon wafers from ingots
- Doping them to create the necessary electrical properties
- Adding contacts to collect the generated electricity
PV cells are then encapsulated to protect them from environmental elements. They’re sandwiched between ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and tempered glass layers. The EVA acts as an adhesive, bonding the layers together, while the glass provides durability and protection against impact.
Once encapsulated, the panels are framed to provide structural support and facilitate installation. The frames are typically aluminum and feature pre-drilled holes for easy mounting. Wiring is also added to connect the individual PV cells and create a series circuit, allowing the flow of electricity from one cell to another.
Before these panels are installed, they undergo rigorous testing and quality control measures. This includes performance testing to ensure the panels meet the specified power output and efficiency ratings. Quality control checks are carried out to verify the integrity of the encapsulation, wiring connections, and overall construction.
Once the panels pass quality control, they are packaged and prepared for distribution. This involves carefully packing them to protect against damage during transportation. Solar panels are then shipped to suppliers, installers, or customers, ready for installation and use in various solar energy systems.